Another set of essential skills for Gallente pilots are the skills for hybrid turrets. Specifically:
Gunnery - is needed to use pretty much any type of turret - get it to level 5.
Small Hybrid Turret - needed to use small railguns and blasters. Needs to be at 5 in order to train T2. It also needs to be at 3, I think, to train medium turrets.
Medium Hybrid Turret - needed to use medium hybrid turrets. Needed if you want to fly cruisers/battlecruisers, since they use these. Again, needs level 5 to train T2, and level 3 to train large hybrids.
Large Hybrid Turret - Lets you use large hybrid turrets. Only really needed if you want to fly battleships or other ships of a similar size. Needs Level 5 to train T2, but that takes aaaaaaaaages.
To use t2 turrets, you need the relevant specialisation skill, which can only be trained when you have that size turret skill to level 5. So, to use t2 small blasters, you need to train small blaster specialisation.
Other useful turret skills, which you should definitely train up, include:
Weapon Upgrades - reduces the power grid use of weapons. You'll want to get this to level 5 if you can, so you can fit as much as possible.
Trajectory Analysis - increases falloff.
Surgical Strike - increases turret damage
Sharpshooter - increases optimal range
Rapid firing - increases rate of fire
Motion Prediction - increases tracking speeds
Controlled Bursts - decreases capacitor need of turrets.
These are all useful skills, get them to 3 or 4 if you can.
With these skills, and the skills Spats mentioned, you'll be able to fly the majority of Gallente ships well.