Etherborn is a puzzle platformer with a focus on gravity-defying traversal, and while it might not be the first game based on that premise, it's probably among the best looking. The nameless, voiceless protagonist inhabits a surreal world of floating structures, and is tempted through them by a bodiless voice. Once reached, this bodiless voice will apparently help the protagonist "understand [their] own existence". (Why not just send an email ffs?)
As the trailer below demonstrates, the diabolically warped illustrations of M.C. Escher are a clear inspiration. According to the Steam description, the player experiences "gravity perpendicular to the surface you are standing on, allowing for creative exploration possibilities in environments carefully crafted as navigation-based puzzles".