The Lands Between is vast, to the point where it can be pretty overwhelming when you first start playing Elden Ring. You have so much choice, it can be hard to know where you're supposed to go. This isn't helped when you come up against a difficult area or boss and wonder whether your skill is lacking, or you've just arrived there too early.
By the time you beat Godrick, most of those qualms should have disappeared. Not that the world seems smaller, but you should've played (and died) enough to have found your feet by then. Arriving in Liurnia of the Lakes opens up a lot of options, including some you might not be aware of, but don't worry, I'll show you some of your options. Here's where you can go after you beat Godrick in Elden Ring.
Raya Lucaria Academy
The Raya Lucaria Academy is probably the first thing you'll notice when you emerge from Stormveil Castle. It's right in the middle of the lake and its size makes it hard to miss. This is the next logical step in your journey and plunges you into an area littered with sorcery-slinging enemies and, naturally, some bosses. The main boss of the academy, Rannala, gives you the option to respec once you defeat her, so if you're unhappy with your build or want to try out different stat allocations, this is a good place to head first.
Sadly, you can't just walk straight in. If you make your way to the main gate, you'll notice a seal in place, denying you access. You need an Academy Glintstone Key to get through and there's one lying close by. Head to the small islands to the west of the academy and you'll find the key behind a sleeping dragon there. Fight him if you like, or use Torrent to dash in and grab it before making a quick get-away.
This manor is the home of the Carian royal family and is found in the far northwest corner of Liurnia. Though smaller than the Raya Lucaria Academy, this area is teeming with some truly disturbing enemies and culminates in a boss fight. It's here you'll find the Sword of Night and Flame, and defeating the boss gives you access to the Three Sisters behind the manor where you can meet Ranni and start her questline.
Getting to the manor is pretty simple. Make your way to the western side of Liurnia lake and head north. Ruins seemingly block your path, but you can find an illusory wall on the northern side which disappears when attacked or rolled into. Be careful when approaching the manor for the first time though—clearly the Carians aren't keen on visitors.
Village of the Albinaurics
This small area is tucked away beneath the cliffside in the southern area of Liurnia. You can access it from the lake and ride up to the village inside the hollowed-out cliff. There's not a lot to do here, aside from meeting up with Nepheli and killing a mini-boss, but this area is also home to one half of the Haligtree Medallion, needed for a hidden endgame area.
It's probably not advisable to skip Raya Lucaria Academy or Caria Manor if it's your first time playing, but if you've hit a wall with any of the bosses in these areas, or you just want to try something new, it's possible to get to Altus Plateau without using the Grand Lift of Dectus.
From the northwest corner of the lake, head up the ravine and you'll eventually reach a shack with a ladder on a structure behind it. The path from here is pretty linear, though there are a few tough enemies to deal with as you make your way through—most notably the bat-like enemies that like to hide until the last minute. This path does end with a boss fight, though you can use the summon sign next to the fog gate in addition to spirit ashes if you're having trouble.
Again, I wouldn't advise going here until you've at least had a go at Raya Lucaria Academy but it is possible to get to Volcano Manor in Mt Gelmir from Liurnia. You have a couple of options.
Head to the big waterwheel lift you used to get to the Schoolhouse classroom Site of Grace, but take it all the way down to the bottom. Allow the enemy down there to kill you with its grab attack and you'll be teleported to a region beneath Volcano Manor. You'll need to kill a boss to proceed, but once done, you'll have access to Mt Gelmir and it's just a short run to the Volcano Manor entrance.
The second (easier) option is to speak to Rya, an NPC located just northwest of Laskyar Ruins. Retrieve her necklace from the NPC located outside a shack to the northwest then return it to her to receive an invitation to Volcano Manor. Now you need to make your way to Altus Plateau and find her at the Lux Ruins and she'll teleport you to the manor.